24-h Urine Collection: A Relevant Tool in CKD Nutrition Evaluation

Nutrients. 2020 Aug 27;12(9):2615. doi: 10.3390/nu12092615.


Dietary management is a cornerstone of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) monitoring, and dietary surveys often difficult to perform. We studied in a CKD patient cohort with two years follow-up, whether validated 24-h urine ionogram would be a relevant tool for diet evaluation and compliance. We included 404 non-dialysis CKD patients, with three evaluations, including repeated measurements of fractional renal creatinine clearance and 24-h urine collection. Completeness of the 24-h urine collection, assessed by daily urine creatinine excretion extrapolated from fractional creatinine clearance, was 64.6%, 75.5%, and 78.2% at the first, second, and third visits, respectively. One hundred sixty-eight patients (41.6%) had three complete collections, with a measured glomerular filtration of 42.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline and prevalence of anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism of 13.9% and 26.2%, respectively, increasing during follow-up to 15% and 31.5% (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The urine analysis showed at baseline a urine volume of above 2 L/day, and estimated sodium and protein intake within targets in 51.6% and 40.3% of cases, which improved during follow-up only for protein (to 45.9%, p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that a 24-h urine ionogram is an interesting, reliable tool in CKD patients for dietary monitoring to achieve target recommendation noteworthy salt and protein intake.

Keywords: 24 h-urine collection; chronic kidney disease; diet protein intake; nutrition; salt.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys / methods*
  • Nutrition Surveys / statistics & numerical data
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / urine*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Urine Specimen Collection / methods*