Time and cost-effective production of next-generation sequencing data has enabled the performance of population-scale comparative and evolutionary studies for various species, which are essential for obtaining the comprehensive insight into molecular mechanisms underlying species- or breed-specific traits. In this study, the evolutionary and functional analysis of Korean native pig (KNP) was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data by comparative and population genomic approaches with six different mammalian species and five pig breeds. We examined the evolutionary history of KNP SNPs, and the specific genes of KNP based on the uniqueness of non-synonymous SNPs among the used species and pig breeds. We discovered the evolutionary trajectory of KNP SNPs within the used mammalian species as well as pig breeds. We also found olfaction-associated functions that have been characterized and diversified during evolution, and quantitative trait loci associated with the unique traits of KNP. Our study provides new insight into the evolution of KNP and serves as a good example for a better understanding of domestic animals in terms of evolution and domestication using the combined approaches of comparative and population genomics.
Keywords: Korean native pig; domestication; evolution; single nucleotide polymorphism.