Review of the Literature on Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland: A Systematic Analysis of Case Reports

In Vivo. 2020 Sep-Oct;34(5):2233-2248. doi: 10.21873/invivo.12034.


Background/aim: To date few cases of smooth muscle-derived tumors of the adrenal gland have been reported and their treatment remains a medical challenge. The aim of this manuscript was to systematically review the literature and present the tumor characteristics and their management in order to provide a standardized approach to their diagnosis and management.

Materials and methods: We searched five databases (PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, ResearchGate, Google scholar) for relevant articles published until March 2020.

Results: Twenty-two cases of adrenal leiomyoma, four cases of adrenal smooth muscle tumor and forty-five cases of adrenal leiomyosarcoma were included.

Conclusion: We present the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and oncological characteristics and prognosis of tumors of the adrenal gland arising from smooth muscle cells, as well as describe the common clinical investigations and therapeutic modalities that have been reported as part of their management.

Keywords: Adrenal gland; adrenalectomy; leiomyoma; leiomyosarcoma; neoplasia; review; smooth muscle tumor; suprarenal.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / therapy
  • Prognosis