Implementation Models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities at the End of Life: A Systematic Review

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Aug 28;17(17):6271. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17176271.


In the last decade, we have seen a growth of Compassionate Communities and Cities (CCC) at the end of life. There has been an evolution of organizations that help construct Community-Based Palliative Care programs. The objective is to analyze the implementation, methodology and effectiveness of the CCC models at the end of life. We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA ScR Guideline. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017068501). Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for studies (from 2000 to 2018) using set eligibility criteria. Three reviewers screened full-texts articles and extracted study data. Outcomes were filled in a registration form which included a narrative synthesis of each article. We screened 1975 records. We retrieved 112 articles and included 31 articles for the final analysis: 17 descriptive studies, 4 interventions studies, 4 reviews and 6 qualitative studies. A total of 11 studies regard the development models of CCC at the end of life, 15 studies were about evaluation of compassionate communities' programs and 5 studies were about protocols for the development of CCC programs. There is poor evidence of the implementation and evaluation models of CCC at the end of life. There is little and low-/very low-quality evidence about CCC development and assessment models. We found no data published on care intervention in advance disease and end of life. A global model for the development and evaluation of CCC at the end of life seems to be necessary.

Keywords: community networks; empathy; palliative care; review.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cities
  • Community Networks*
  • Empathy*
  • Humans
  • Palliative Care* / methods
  • Palliative Care* / organization & administration
  • Terminal Care / methods
  • Terminal Care / organization & administration