Low-dose influenza vaccine Grippol Quadrivalent with adjuvant Polyoxidonium induces a T helper-2 mediated humoral immune response and increases NK cell activity

Vaccine. 2020 Sep 29;38(42):6645-6655. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.07.053. Epub 2020 Aug 29.


The influenza vaccine Grippol® Quadrivalent (GQ) is a new vaccine, containing the adjuvant Polyoxidonium® and recombinant hemagglutinins from 4 strains of the influenza virus in amount of 5-6 μg of each hemagglutinin per human dose. These doses of antigens are about 3 times less than the standard dose recommended by WHO. We sought to characterize the immune response to the GQ vaccine and to determine the contribution of the adjuvant in this response. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with GQ or with adjuvant-free antigen mixtures (AGs). Then, the antibody response, the number of memory T cells in the spleen, and the functional properties of splenocytes were determined. The vaccine GQ has been shown to induce antibodies to all 4 influenza hemagglutinins. The vaccination with GQ caused a strong increase in the AG-induced proliferation and production of Th2 cytokines ex vivo. These effects were equal to effect achieved by standard dose of antigens. Vaccination also caused the accumulation of CD4+ large lymphocytes with the phenotype of central and effector memory T cells in the spleen. The GQ vaccine enhanced the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the adjuvant-free mixture of AGs in lowered and standard doses did not affect NK activity. We did not find a noticeable response of Th1 and CD8+ T cells to vaccination. In vitro, the GQ vaccine stimulated the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) enhancing the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD83, CD86 and ICOSL molecules. Polyoxidonium without AGs also induced expression of ICOSL, which plays an important role in T-dependent humoral immune response. In summary, the low-dose influenza vaccine GQ with Polyoxidonium adjuvant is immunogenic, induces a Th2-polarized T-cell response and CD4+ memory T cells maturation, activates the production of antibodies to influenza hemagglutinins, and increases the activity of NK cells.

Keywords: Adjuvant; Azoximer bromide; Cytokines; Immunity; Influenza vaccine; Polyoxidonium.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Killer Cells, Natural
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Piperazines
  • Polymers


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Grippol
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Piperazines
  • Polymers
  • azoximer bromide