Electronegative Electroretinograms in the United Arab Emirates

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2020 Jul 20;27(2):86-90. doi: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_106_20. eCollection 2020 Apr-Jun.


Purpose: An electronegative electroretinogram (ERG), defined as having a b:a wave ratio ≤1 in the scotopic flash ERG response, indicates relative inner retinal dysfunction. Causes vary depending upon the study population. In the Arabian Gulf, where inherited retinal disease is relatively prevalent, common diagnoses associated with electronegative ERGs have not been described. In this study, we report the frequency and causes of electronegative ERGs in a cohort of Emirati patients with inherited retinal disease.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all full-field ERGs done for Emirati patients in the Ocular Genetics Service of Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi from January 2017 to December 2019. Those who had an electronegative ERG in at least one eye were included in the study.

Results: Out of 137 patients, 9 probands (6.6%) had an electronegative ERG. The mean age at presentation was 24 years (range 5-48 years), and five patients (55.6%) were male. The final clinical diagnoses were congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) (two TRPM1-related and one Oguchi disease), X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) (one genetically confirmed and two not genetically tested), cone-rod dystrophy (one CRX-related and one not genetically tested), and enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) (one NRL-related). The one patient who did not have bilateral electronegative ERGs was a male with XLRS whose fellow eye had an unrecordable ERG.

Conclusions: In this series of Emirati patients, an electronegative ERG was most commonly associated with the inherited retinal diseases recessive CSNB and XLRS. An electronegative ERG was noted in a case of NRL-related ESCS.

Keywords: Congenital stationary night blindness; NRL; X-linked retinoschisis; electronegative; electroretinogram.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cone-Rod Dystrophies / epidemiology
  • Cone-Rod Dystrophies / physiopathology*
  • Electroretinography*
  • Eye Diseases, Hereditary / epidemiology
  • Eye Diseases, Hereditary / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / epidemiology
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myopia / epidemiology
  • Myopia / physiopathology*
  • Night Blindness / epidemiology
  • Night Blindness / physiopathology*
  • Retina / physiopathology*
  • Retinal Degeneration / epidemiology
  • Retinal Degeneration / physiopathology*
  • Retinoschisis / epidemiology
  • Retinoschisis / physiopathology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United Arab Emirates / epidemiology
  • Vision Disorders / epidemiology
  • Vision Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome
  • Night blindness, congenital stationary
  • Oguchi disease