Age at Onset of LRRK2 p.Gly2019Ser Is Related to Environmental and Lifestyle Factors

Mov Disord. 2020 Oct;35(10):1854-1858. doi: 10.1002/mds.28238. Epub 2020 Sep 2.


Objectives: The effect of environmental and lifestyle factors on patients with LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) p.Gly2019Ser (LRRK2+ /PD+ ) compared to idiopathic PD (iPD) has yet to be thoroughly investigated.

Methods: In a homogeneous Tunisian Arab Berber population, we recruited 200 idiopathic PD and 199 LRRK2 p.Gly2019Ser mutation carriers, of whom 142 had PD (LRRK2+ /PD+ ) and 57 were unaffected (LRRK2+ /PD- ). Case report form (CRF) questionnaires (motor and non-motor symptoms) including the Geoparkinson Questionnaire were used to assess environmental and lifestyle factors.

Results: In LRRK2+ /PD+ , tobacco use was significantly associated with a later median age at onset (AAO). The median AAO was 60 years (interquartile range = 52-67.25) for tobacco users, compared to 52 years (interquartile range = 45.25-61) for non-users (P = 0.0042 at adjusted α = 0.025). Additionally, we observed an independent but additive effect of black tea consumption and tobacco use.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that tobacco and black tea have a protective effect on age at onset in LRRK2+ /PD+ . © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Keywords: LRRK2; age at onset; black tea; environment; modifiers; penetrance; smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age of Onset
  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2 / genetics
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Parkinson Disease*
  • Penetrance


  • LRRK2 protein, human
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2

Grant support