Aging is associated with redox imbalance according to the redox theory of aging. Consistently, a mouse model of premature aging (LmnaG609G/+ ) showed an increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reduced basal antioxidant capacity, including loss of the NADPH-coupled glutathione redox system. LmnaG609G/+ mice also exhibited reduced mitochondrial ATP synthesis secondary to ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment of LmnaG609G/+ vascular smooth muscle cells with magnesium-enriched medium improved the intracellular ATP level, enhanced the antioxidant capacity, and thereby reduced mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, treatment of LmnaG609G/+ mice with dietary magnesium improved the proton pumps (complexes I, III, and IV), stimulated extramitochondrial NADH oxidation and enhanced the coupled mitochondrial membrane potential, and thereby increased H+ -coupled mitochondrial NADPH and ATP synthesis, which is necessary for cellular energy supply and survival. Consistently, magnesium treatment reduced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and improved the longevity of mice. This antioxidant property of magnesium may be beneficial in children with HGPS.
Keywords: HGPS; aging; magnesium; progeria; vascular calcification.
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