In the current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic, Brazilian states and municipalities have adopted social distancing measures as a strategy to reduce the number of cases and control the disease. These measures affect populations and territories differently. This study aims to analyze the trend of social distancing in this pandemic and its relationship with the context of living conditions in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with spatial distribution was conducted. The municipality's Social Distancing Index and the Living Conditions Index were calculated. Global and Local Moran Indices were employed to assess the degree of spatial dependence and autocorrelation. Fluctuations were observed in the social distancing levels during the analyzed period, with higher distancing percentages in neighborhoods with more favorable living conditions. The analysis and interpretation of COVID-19 containment measures, such as social distancing, should consider the profile of local vulnerability of each territory for the correct dimensioning of pandemic mitigation strategies from the perspective of developing social actions enabling greater adherence of the most impoverished populations.