The clinically relevant aspects of canine leishmaniasis are reviewed. Included are data from 92 dogs imported from the Mediterranean basin and at least 2 autochthonous cases. New aspects on pathogenesis are presented, including evidence that canine leishmaniasis is an immune complex disease. Therapy with meglumine antimonate (Glucantime) is evaluated. The hazards of imported canine leishmaniasis for public health are discussed.