Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are predisposed to poor cardiovascular outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Left ventricular adverse remodeling (LVAR) triggered upon myocardial infarction is recognized as the predominant pathological process in the development of heart failure. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether visit-to-visit fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability is a potential predictor of LVAR in T2DM patients after STEMI.
Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018 in Ruijin Hospital, T2DM patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were consecutively enrolled and followed up for ~ 12 months. The changes in left ventricular geometric and functional parameters between baseline and 12-month follow-up were assessed by echocardiography. The incidence of LVAR, defined as 20% increase in indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), and its relationship with visit-to-visit FPG variability were analyzed. Multivariate regression models were constructed to test the predictive value of FPG variability for post-infarction LVAR.
Results: A total of 437 patients with type 2 diabetes and STEMI were included in the final analysis. During a mean follow-up of 12.4 ± 1.1 months, the incidence of LVAR was 20.6% and mean enlargement of indexed LVEDV was 3.31 ± 14.4 mL/m2, which was significantly increased in patients with higher coefficient variance (CV) of FPG (P = 0.002) irrespective of baseline glycemic levels. In multivariate analysis, FPG variability was independently associated with incidence of post-infarction LVAR after adjustment for traditional risk factors, baseline HbA1c as well as mean FPG during follow-up (OR: 3.021 [95% CI 1.081-8.764] for highest vs. lowest tertile of CV of FPG). Assessing FPG variability by other two measures, including standard deviation (SD) and variability independent of the mean (VIM), yielded similar findings.
Conclusions: This study suggests that visit-to-visit FPG variability is an independent predictor of incidence of LVAR in T2DM patients with STEMI. Trial registration Trials number, NCT02089360; registered on March 17,2014.
Keywords: FPG variability; Left ventricular adverse remodeling; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; Type 2 diabetes.