Objectives: Although tooth transplantation is a useful treatment option as a substitute for a missing tooth, transplantation to a narrow alveolar ridge is not feasible. In this study, we tested a tissue engineering approach simultaneously with tooth transplantation using a scaffold or a combination with cells to accelerate bone formation and periodontal tissue regeneration.
Materials and methods: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) were harvested from C57BL/6J mice. The upper first or the second molar of 3-week-old C57BL/6J mice and a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold were transplanted with BM-MNCs (MNC group) or without BM-MNCs (β-TCP group) into the thigh muscle of syngeneic mice. The tooth alone was also transplanted (control group). After 4 weeks, the transplants were harvested and analyzed.
Results: Bone volume was significantly larger in the MNC and the β-TCP groups than that in the control group, and the newly formed bone was observed on the lateral wall of the root. Compared with the control group, the MNC group showed a larger trabecular thickness and fractal dimension.
Conclusion: This study showed accelerated bone formation and periodontal tissue regeneration when tooth transplantation was performed with a β-TCP scaffold. BM-MNCs may accelerate bone maturation, while the effect on bone formation was limited.
Keywords: bone marrow mononuclear cells; bone regeneration; periodontal tissue regeneration; scaffold; tooth transplantation; β-tricalcium phosphate.
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