Stereology is a set of simple and efficient methods for quantitation of three-dimensional microscopic structures which is specifically tuned to provide reliable data from sections. Within the last few years, a number of new methods has been developed which are of special interest to pathologists. Methods for estimating the volume, surface area and length of any structure are described in this review. The principles on which stereology is based and the necessary sampling procedures are described and illustrated with examples. The necessary equipment, the measurements, and the calculations are invariably simple and easy.