Detection of Focal and Non-Focal Electroencephalogram Signals Using Fast Walsh-Hadamard Transform and Artificial Neural Network

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Sep 1;20(17):4952. doi: 10.3390/s20174952.


The discrimination of non-focal class (NFC) and focal class (FC), is vital in localizing the epileptogenic zone (EZ) during neurosurgery. In the conventional diagnosis method, the neurologist has to visually examine the long hour electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which consumes time and is prone to error. Hence, in this present work, automated diagnosis of FC EEG signals from NFC EEG signals is developed using the Fast Walsh-Hadamard Transform (FWHT) method, entropies, and artificial neural network (ANN). The FWHT analyzes the EEG signals in the frequency domain and decomposes it into the Hadamard coefficients. Five different nonlinear features, namely approximate entropy (ApEn), log-energy entropy (LogEn), fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn), sample entropy (SampEn), and permutation entropy (PermEn) are extracted from the decomposed Hadamard coefficients. The extracted features detail the nonlinearity in the NFC and the FC EEG signals. The judicious entropy features are supplied to the ANN classifier, with a 10-fold cross-validation method to classify the NFC and FC classes. Two publicly available datasets such as the University of Bonn and Bern-Barcelona dataset are used to evaluate the proposed approach. A maximum sensitivity of 99.70%, the accuracy of 99.50%, and specificity of 99.30% with the 3750 pairs of NFC and FC signal are achieved using the Bern-Barcelona dataset, while the accuracy of 92.80%, the sensitivity of 91%, and specificity of 94.60% is achieved using University of Bonn dataset. Compared to the existing technique, the proposed approach attained a maximum classification performance in both the dataset.

Keywords: artificial neural network; classification; entropy; fast Walsh–Hadamard transform; feature extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Electroencephalography*
  • Entropy
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Neurosurgical Procedures
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*