Objective: To investigate effect of serum total testosterone and its relationship with other laboratory parameters on the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected male patients.
Methods: This prospective cohort study included 221 consecutive male patients (>18 years old) with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who had been hospitalized due to COVID-19. The patients were divided into 3 groups: Asymptomatic patients (n: 46), symptomatic patients who were hospitalized in the internal medicine unit (IMU) (n: 129), and patients who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) (n: 46).
Results: As serum total testosterone level at baseline decreases, probability (%) to be in the ICU significantly increases (p = 0.001). As serum total testosterone level at baseline decreases, probability (%) of mortality significantly increases (p = 0.002). In the patients who had pre-COVID-19 serum gonadal hormones test (n: 24), serum total testosterone level significantly decreased from pre-COVID-19 level of 458 ± 198 ng/dl to 315 ± 120 ng/dl at the time of COVID-19 in the patients (p = 0.003).
Conclusions: COVID-19 might deteriorate serum testosterone level in SARS-CoV-2 infected male patients. Low serum total testosterone level at baseline has a significant increased risk for the ICU and mortality in patients with COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; gonadal hormones; morbidity; mortality; prognosis; risk factors; testosterone.