The liver is the target of several infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases, which affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide and cause an estimated death toll of more than 2 million people each year. Dysregulation of T cell responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases; hence, it is critically important to understand the function and fate of T cells in the liver. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on liver immune surveillance by conventional and invariant T cells and explore the complex cross-talk between immune cell subsets that determines the balance between hepatic immunity and tolerance.
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