Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, and the high prevalence of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperactivity in diabetic patients makes them further susceptible to SNS-mediated oxidative stress and accelerated kidney damage. Here, we investigated if canagliflozin can reverse isoprenaline (ISO)-induced renal oxidative damage in rats, a model that mimics SNS overstimulation-induced organ injuries in humans. We found that ISO administration elevates renal oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced protein oxidation product (APOP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO), while depleting levels of endogenous antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Strikingly, canagliflozin treatment of ISO-treated rats not only prevents elevation of oxidative stress markers but also rescues levels of depleted antioxidants. Our results also show that canagliflozin stimulates antioxidant/anti-inflammatory signaling pathways involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and eNOS, and inhibits iNOS and NADPH oxidase isoform 4 (NOX4), all of which are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Further, canagliflozin prevents ISO-induced apoptosis of kidney cells by inhibiting Bax protein upregulation and caspase-3 activation. Histological examination of kidney sections reveal that canagliflozin attenuates ISO-mediated increases in inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and fibrosis. Finally, consistent with these findings, canagliflozin treatment improves kidney function in ISO-treated rats, suggesting that the antioxidant effects may be clinically translatable.