Immunological considerations for COVID-19 vaccine strategies

Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Oct;20(10):615-632. doi: 10.1038/s41577-020-00434-6. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most formidable challenge to humanity in a century. It is widely believed that prepandemic normalcy will never return until a safe and effective vaccine strategy becomes available and a global vaccination programme is implemented successfully. Here, we discuss the immunological principles that need to be taken into consideration in the development of COVID-19 vaccine strategies. On the basis of these principles, we examine the current COVID-19 vaccine candidates, their strengths and potential shortfalls, and make inferences about their chances of success. Finally, we discuss the scientific and practical challenges that will be faced in the process of developing a successful vaccine and the ways in which COVID-19 vaccine strategies may evolve over the next few years.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis*
  • Betacoronavirus / drug effects
  • Betacoronavirus / immunology*
  • Betacoronavirus / pathogenicity
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Genetic Vectors / chemistry
  • Genetic Vectors / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Herd / drug effects
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine
  • Pandemics / prevention & control*
  • Patient Safety
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / immunology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / prevention & control*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / immunology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / virology
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Vaccines, Subunit
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Viral Vaccines / biosynthesis
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Vaccines, Subunit
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
  • Viral Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2