Microwave assisted methacrylation of Kappa carrageenan: A bioink for cartilage tissue engineering

Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Dec 1;164:3523-3534. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.241. Epub 2020 Sep 2.


In this study, we aimed to obtain stable Kappa carrageenan (κCar) hydrogel that could be used as a bioink for cartilage regeneration. For this purpose, we described an effective and considerably faster methacrylation process by using microwave energy. Thus, microwave-methacrylated κCar (Mw-κCar-MA) with ≥85% degree of methacrylation (DM) was synthesized despite the use of a low concentration of methacrylic anhydride (MA) at 1000 W in 5 min. Then, Mw-κCar-MA was photo-crosslinked by only using UV irradiation for 40 s. Characterization studies proved that Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels were stronger and have lower weight loss (~20% at 30 days) than that of conventionally synthesized κCar-MA hydrogels. Viscosities of the Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels were found to be sufficient to use in 3D bioprinters. Furthermore, Mw-κCar-MA hydrogels enhanced the viability, proliferation, and GAG deposition of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Therefore, we proposed that Mw-κCar-MA can be considered as a suitable bioink for cartilage tissue engineering.

Keywords: Bioink; Cartilage tissue engineering; Kappa carrageenan; Microwave energy.

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Carrageenan / chemistry*
  • Cartilage
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic
  • Chondrogenesis
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogels / chemistry
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Materials Testing
  • Microwaves*
  • Polymers
  • Tissue Engineering


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Hydrogels
  • Polymers
  • Carrageenan
  • Collagen