Objective: To evaluate the contribution of applying the theoretical framework of implementation science for adherence to non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium.
Methods: A quasi-experimental prospective design was conducted from March 2017 to October 2018 in a teaching hospital. Participants included 149 healthcare staff and 72 elderly inpatients. A non-pharmacological delirium prevention program was designed, applied and evaluated in accordance with the consolidated framework for advancing implementation research (CFIR). The primary outcome was the global adherence rate to 12 predefined indicators, comparing measurements at baseline (O1), after training (O2) and at a 6-month follow-up (O3) assessed by an external reviewer. Staff knowledge and beliefs about delirium were assessed using a validated tool, and delirium incidence was evaluated using the confusion assessment method.
Results: Overall adherence increased from 58.2% (O1) to 77.9% (O2) and 75.6% (O3) (O2 vs. O1: p < 0.001 and O3 vs. O1: p < 0.001). Staff perceptions regarding implementation of non-pharmacological interventions increased from 74.8% to 81.9% (p = 0.004). Delirium incidence was non-significantly reduced from 20% (O1) to 16% (O3) (p = 0.99).
Conclusions: Implementation of a delirium prevention program using a CFIR model was useful in improving adherence to activities included in this program, as well as improving the knowledge and beliefs regarding delirium by healthcare workers. The impact of this implementation strategy on the incidence of delirium should be evaluated in a larger scale multicenter trial.
Keywords: CFIR; adherence; delirium; implementation; non-pharmacological intervention; prevention.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.