PINK1 and PRKN, proteins mutated in Parkinson disease, selectively amplify ubiquitin signals on damaged mitochondria for elimination via mitophagy. Because all five macroautophagy/autophagy receptors in mammals possess domains binding to ubiquitin and Atg8-family proteins, they were thought to recruit Atg8-family protein labeled phagophores from a cytosolic pool. However, our recent findings show that, in addition to Atg8-family protein binding, two of the receptors CALCOCO2 and OPTN interact with RB1CC1 and ATG9A, respectively, indicating that two different axes, CALCOCO2-RB1CC1 and OPTN-ATG9A, can initiate de novo biogenesis of autophagic membranes on ubiquitin-coated damaged mitochondria. These results explain the critical roles of the autophagy receptors CALCOCO2 and OPTN in mitochondrial degradation, and their abilities to simultaneously bind multiple autophagy core proteins propose a new function, i.e. a scaffold to build multivalent interactions for the orchestrated assembly of autophagy proteins near the ubiquitinated cargo.
Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy-related; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CRABP2: cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2; LIR: MAP1LC3/LC3-interacting region; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; OPTN: optineurin; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; SNIPER: specific and nongenetic IAP-dependent protein eraser; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ULK: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase.
Keywords: Mitochondria; PINK1; Parkin; Parkinson’s disease; ubiquitin.