Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and associated with a worse outcome. The pathogenesis of CSA-AKI is complex and multifactorial. Therapeutic options for severe CSA-AKI are limited to renal replacement therapy constituting a supportive measure. Therefore, risk identification, prevention, and early diagnosis are of utmost importance to improve patient outcomes. This review aims to provide an overview of the diagnosis, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and risk factors of CSA-AKI and delineates the strategies for AKI prevention available to improve patient outcomes after cardiac surgery.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury (AKI); Cardiac surgery; KDIGO bundles; Prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI); Renal biomarkers.
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