Purpose of review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can begin in youth. Prevention is essential to reducing the burden of CVD-related risk factors in childhood and disease development in adulthood. This review addresses the clinical scope of CVD prevention, including a review of conditions encountered, proposed diagnostic criteria, and management strategies. We also highlight the impact of the intrauterine environment on the development of CVD risk. Finally, we highlight the potential role of telehealth in the management of pediatric patients with risk factors for premature CVD.
Recent findings: Growing evidence suggests that maternal obesity, diabetes, and preeclampsia may play an important role in the development of CVD risk among offspring contributing to the development of known traditional CVD risk factors among offspring. As the prevalence of CVD continues to rise, knowledge as well as appropriate diagnosis and management of primordial and traditional risk factors for CVD is needed. The diagnosis and management of CVD risk factors is a central role of the preventive pediatric cardiologist, but it is imperative that the general physician and other pediatric subspecialists be aware of these risk factors, diagnoses, and management strategies. Finally, telehealth may offer an additional method for providing preventive care, including screening and counseling of at risk children and adolescents for traditional risk factors and for providing education regarding risk factors in cases of long distance care and/or during periods of social distancing.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Hyperlipidemia; Hypertension; Obesity; Prevention; Telehealth.