Carotenoid content of extruded and puffed products made of colored-grain wheats

Food Chem. 2021 Mar 15;340:127951. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127951. Epub 2020 Aug 31.


Wheat is a relevant source not only of essential macronutrients but also of many other health-promoting phytochemicals (carotenoids, anthocyanins, tocols, phenolic acids, etc.). Colored-grain wheats were used for extrusion and kernel puffing. The total content of carotenoids (sum of lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, and xanthophyll esters) decreased significantly due to extrusion (to 25.7%) and puffing (to 31.6%), compared to the content in the raw material. Zeaxanthin was shown to be the most stable among all detected carotenoids (30.8 and 48.7% was preserved). The results of the performed analyses have not confirmed greater stability of xanthophyll esters against higher temperatures (decrease to 29.5 and 22.1%). Both technologies induced E-to Z-isomerization of all-E-lutein and puffing also of all-E-zeaxanthin. Higher concentrations of 13-Z- and 9-Z-zeaxanthin were identified in puffed grains (2× and 37× on average). To preserve more carotenoids, it is appropriate to look for a more suitable food processing technology.

Keywords: Antheraxanthin (PubChem CID: 5281223); Carotenoid esters; Cereal-based food; Human nutrition; Lutein; Lutein (PubChem CID: 5281243); Xanthophylls; Zeaxanthin (PubChem CID: 5280899); α-Carotene (PubChem CID: 4369188); β-Carotene (PubChem CID: 5280489).

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / analysis
  • Carotenoids / analysis*
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Food Handling*
  • Triticum / chemistry*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Carotenoids