Volleyball-related Adult Maxillofacial Trauma Injuries: A NEISS Database Study

J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jun 1;32(4):1564-1567. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006984.


Introduction: Craniofacial trauma among athletes of various sports has been well detailed and described. Despite this research, there is a dearth of literature describing the nature of facial trauma secondary to volleyball, despite its global popularity.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of volleyball-related facial trauma was conducted using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database from 2009 to 2018. Patient demographics (age, sex, and race), medical injury information (injury type and location), and disposition (observed and discharged, admitted, deceased) were collected and analyzed. χ2 testing was performed to compare categorical variables.

Results: A total of 235 volleyball-related facial traumas were recorded with an estimated 10,424 visits occurring nationally. The majority of injuries were among young adults aged 20 to 29 years (52.3%) and was evenly distributed for men and women. Lacerations were the most frequent injury type (37.9%), whereas the face was the most common site of injury (41.7%). The majority of fractures involved the nose (71.4%) and among individuals aged 20 through 49 (90.5%). Males had significantly more lacerations than females (75.3% vs 24.7%), whereas females had significantly more contusions/abrasions (64.5% vs 35.5%) and concussions (72.9% vs 27.1%).

Conclusions: Volleyball-related craniofacial injuries can vary depending on patient demographics. This information can help with the development of safety and preventative measures for individuals participating in the sport.

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries* / epidemiology
  • Athletic Injuries* / etiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Facial Injuries* / epidemiology
  • Facial Injuries* / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lacerations* / epidemiology
  • Lacerations* / etiology
  • Male
  • Maxillofacial Injuries* / epidemiology
  • Maxillofacial Injuries* / etiology
  • Volleyball*
  • Young Adult