Students' Acceptance of the COVID-19 Impact on Shifting Higher Education to Distance Learning in Poland

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 5;17(18):6468. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186468.


This paper is dedicated to the higher education institutions shifting towards distance learning processes due to the global pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 in 2020. The paper covers the pandemic situation in Poland generally, analyzing governmental ordinances and tracking the gradual extension of restrictions for educational institutions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of Experience, Enjoyment, Computer Anxiety, and Self-Efficacy on students' acceptance of shifting education to distance learning. The study tested and used the adapted General Extended Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning (GETAMEL) in the context of coronavirus pandemic. The partial least squares method of structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed research model. The study utilizes an online survey to obtain data from 1692 Polish undergraduate and graduate students in both full- and part-time study. The dataset was analyzed using SmartPLS 3 software. Results showed that the best predictor of student's acceptance of shifting education to distance learning is Enjoyment, followed by Self-Efficacy. Both Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness predict student's Attitude Towards Using and Intention to Use the distance learning. The findings improve understanding regarding the acceptance of distance learning and this work is therefore of particular interest to teachers and practitioners of education.

Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; distance learning; e-learning; higher education; legal ordinance; online communication tools; pandemic.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude
  • Betacoronavirus
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Education, Distance*
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Pleasure
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Poland / epidemiology
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Self Efficacy
  • Students*