Blood pressure measurement methodology and technology in the SWEET diabetes centers: An international SWEET database survey

Pediatr Diabetes. 2020 Dec;21(8):1537-1545. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13114. Epub 2020 Oct 11.


Introduction: The accuracy of blood pressure (BP) measurement is a prerequisite for the reliable diagnosis and management of hypertension.

Objectives: This survey evaluated the use of office and out-of-office BP measurements and the antihypertensive pharmacological treatment in expert pediatric diabetes centers.

Methods: A questionnaire was distributed in 78 reference pediatric diabetes centers of the SWEET international consortium. The methodology, devices, indications, and interpretation of office BP measurements (OBPM), 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and home BP monitoring (HBPM), and the preference for antihypertensive drug treatment was assessed. A grading score was developed to evaluate centers for overall BP measurement performance.

Results: Fifty-two centers responded. The average score for OBPM methodology was 72.5%, for technology 77.5% and the overall center score was 74.75%.The majority of the centers used appropriate methodology and technology, however, there was heterogeneity among them. Manual auscultatory or automated devices specifically validated for children were used by 26/52 centers. ABPM was recommended by 35/52 centers (27/35 had health insurance coverage) and HBPM by 18/52 centers. The BP measurement methodology and devices used for ABPM and HBPM were frequently inadequate. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were the most frequently prescribed drugs for treating hypertension.

Conclusions: The majority of SWEET pediatric diabetes centers use adequate methodology and devices for BP measurement. ABPM is recommended by two thirds of the centers, whereas HBPM is less widely used. Further improvement in the quality of office and out-of-office BP measurements and harmonization among centers is necessary according to current guidelines.

Keywords: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; clinic blood pressure; diabetes type1; diagnosis; methodology; out-of-office blood pressure; self- blood pressure measurement; white-coat hypertension.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Algorithms*
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods*
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Databases, Factual
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Surveys and Questionnaires