Prevalence of Dental Caries among Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Users Attending Dental Hospital in Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh

Indian J Community Med. 2020 Apr-Jun;45(2):209-214. doi: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_245_19. Epub 2020 Jun 2.


Introduction: The relationship of tobacco use to dental caries is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between smoking and smokeless tobacco usage and prevalence of dental caries and its pattern in the Varanasi population.

Materials and methods: In this study, 472 elderly dentate and consenting individuals were included. Individuals were examined with the aid of mouth mirror, No. 23 explorer, and cotton rolls. The age of the study group ranged from 16 years to 75 years. Individuals were categorized as smoking tobacco users, smokeless tobacco users, and the combination of these two. Frequency and dosage of tobacco usage was recorded. Dental caries was measured using decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Oral hygiene practices such as mode, material, and frequency of brushing were also recorded. Data were assessed using SPSS 17.0 using Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA test, and binary regression.

Results: Caries rate was similar in both males and females (2.57 and 2.70), and the difference was not statistically significant. Caries was higher in individuals with habits when compared to those who were not having habits. There was no statistically significant association between individuals who were smokers, using smokeless tobacco, frequency, mode, and material of brushing with caries pattern. Among smokers, DMFT increased with frequency and duration of smoking, and it was statistically significant; however, in smokeless tobacco users, this was not the case. There was a positive correlation with DMFT and frequency of smoking.

Conclusion: The study has shown that tobacco habit is a risk factor for increased caries activity, and it is higher in smokers as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers.

Keywords: Decayed-missing-and-filled teeth index; dental caries; smokeless tobacco; smoking tobacco.