Background: The presence of co-existent neuronal antibodies (neuronal-IgG) in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG1) is not yet well understood.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the co-existence of a broad range of neuronal-IgG in MOG-IgG1+ patients.
Methods: MOG-IgG1+ patients were tested for 17 neuronal-IgGs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum including NMDA-R-IgG, AMPA-R-IgG, GABAB-R-IgG, LGI1-IgG, CASPR2-IgG, GABAA-R-IgG, GAD65-IgG, mGLUR1-IgG, DPPX-IgG, CRMP5-IgG, amphiphysin-IgG, PCA1,2,Tr, and ANNA1,2,3. Clinical and radiological features of MOG-IgG1+ with NMDA-R-IgG in CSF were compared to a control cohort of MOG-IgG1+ patients without NMDA-R-IgG.
Results: A total of 376 MOG-IgG1+ patients underwent testing for neuronal-IgGs. Serum testing for neuronal-IgGs (113 adults, 142 children) identified one child with NMDA-R-IgG (0.7%), one child with CASPR2-IgG (0.7%), one adult with LGI1-IgG (0.9%) and one adult with GABAA-R-IgG (0.9%). CSF testing for neuronal-IgGs (97 adults, 169 children) identified seven children (4%) and seven adults (7%) with NMDA-R-IgG, and one adult with GABAA-R-IgG (1%). The MOG-IgG1+/NMDA-R-IgG+ patients had a median age of 17 (range: 2-39) years. Features associated with MOG-IgG1+/NMDA-R-IgG+ included encephalopathy (p = 0.001), seizures (p = 0.045), and leptomeningeal enhancement (p = 0.045).
Conclusion: NMDA-R-IgG was the most frequently detected neuronal-IgG to co-exist with MOG-IgG1. MOG-IgG1+/NMDA-R-IgG+ patients most often presented with encephalopathy and seizures. Testing for MOG-IgG1 and NMDA-R-IgG may be warranted in patients with encephalopathy and inflammatory demyelinating syndromes.
Keywords: MOG-IgG1; NMDA-R-IgG; autoimmune encephalitis; biomarkers; demyelination; neuronal antibodies.