Development of relationship with patient self efficacy scale: Gender, department, and grade level differences

Niger J Clin Pract. 2020 Sep;23(9):1201-1206. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_243_18.


Background: Self-efficacy has become a cross-disciplinary concept. In the field of healthcare, this concept is considered crucial for nurses; who play an important role in improving the health and well-being of the community.

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a "Relationship-with-the-patient self-efficacy scale" (RPSES).

Methodology: A sample of 331 university students (310 females and 21 males; 168 from the midwifery and 162 from the nursing departments) were enrolled in the study. Out of 24 items, 8 behavior items with the highest factor loadings were selected regarding the nurse-patient-relationship self-efficacy according to the results of the preliminary exploratory factor analysis.

Results: The final exploratory factor analysis revealed that the selected 8 items of RPSES had a single factor, explaining 83.28% of the total variance. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was c alculated as 0.97.

Conclusion: This scale has beendemonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument.The analyses unfolded that RPSES scores of the students were not different between men and womenand did not differ by the departments the students attended; however, the RPSES scores were different by the grade levels of the students (juniors and seniors). The fourth graders' RPSES scores were higher than those of third graders.

Keywords: Exploratory factor analysis; gender; grade level; midwifery; nursing; relationship-with-the-patient; self-efficacy.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nurse Midwives / psychology*
  • Nurse-Patient Relations*
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Students, Nursing / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*