The complement system may be crucial during dengue virus infection and progression to severe dengue. This study investigates the role of MBL2 genetic variants and levels of MBL in serum and complement proteins in Vietnamese dengue patients. MBL2 genotypes (- 550L/H, MBL2 codon 54), MBL2 diplotypes (XA/XO, YA/XO) and MBL2 haplotypes (LXPB, HXPA, XO) were associated with dengue in the study population. The levels of complement factors C2, C5, and C5a were higher in dengue and dengue with warning signs (DWS) patients compared to those in healthy controls, while factor D levels were decreased in dengue and DWS patients compared to the levels determined in healthy controls. C2 and C5a levels were associated with the levels of AST and ALT and with WBC counts. C9 levels were negatively correlated with ALT levels and WBC counts, and factor D levels were associated with AST and ALT levels and with platelet counts. In conclusions, MBL2 polymorphisms are associated with dengue in the Vietnamese study population. The levels of the complement proteins C2, C4b, C5, C5a, C9, factor D and factor I are modulated in dengue patients during the clinical course of dengue.