Breast Implant-associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Review with Emphasis on the Role of Brentuximab Vedotin

J Cell Immunol. 2020 May;2(3):80-89. doi: 10.33696/immunology.2.025.


Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a recently recognized complication of textured breast implants. It typically presents as unilateral peri-implant swelling approximately 7-10 years after implantation. While the course is usually indolent, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma may form a locally invasive mass and metastasize to regional lymph nodes or beyond to distant sites. Surgical excision has been well established as the standard of care for localized disease; however, guidelines directing management of advanced, recurrent or unresectable disease are based on limited and extrapolated evidence. The CD30-targeting immunoconjugate, brentuximab vedotin, has been utilized in this setting, typically in combination with chemotherapy. We recently reported a patient with unresectable breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma who was treated with brentuximab vedotin monotherapy and has now sustained complete remission for 2.6 years. Herein, we provide an up-to-date review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma with emphasis on the role of brentuximab vedotin.

Keywords: ALCL; BIA-ALCL; Breast Implant associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Brentuximab vedotin; Lymphoma.