Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors: From Discovery to Current Developments

J Med Chem. 2020 Dec 10;63(23):14228-14242. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00934. Epub 2020 Sep 23.


Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein in human plasma. The dissociation of the TTR tetramer and misfolding of the TTR monomer result in the formation of amyloid fibrils. Hereditary TTR amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils containing TTR variants. The development of small molecules that kinetically stabilize the TTR tetramer is one of the effective strategies for the treatment of hereditary TTR amyloidosis. So far, several stabilizers have been discovered. Tafamidis is the only approved stabilizer for treatment of hereditary TTR amyloidosis, although two nucleic acid medicines that inhibit TTR synthesis, inotersen and patisiran, were recently approved for treatment of this disorder. In this Perspective, we seek to describe the representative kinetic stabilizers from discovery to development, interweaving the crystallographic study of the complex structures.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Amyloid / biosynthesis
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Drug Discovery
  • Humans
  • Molecular Structure
  • Prealbumin / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Amyloid
  • Prealbumin