Transplantation of infants less than 1 year of age with kidneys from live-related parental donors has recently led to good results, whereas cadaver donor renal transplantation in this recipient age group has led to a high mortality rate (11/13). Similarly, the results of cadaver donor renal transplantation in infants and young children less than 5 years of age has been suboptimal in the past, although recent data are more encouraging. With recent availability of long-term peritoneal dialysis for the infant and young child with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), it is possible to defer transplantation until an optimal donor becomes available. Because of the possible immunologic hyperactivity of such recipients, the immunosuppressive regimen may need to be modified if improved cadaver donor survival rates are to be obtained. The use of anencephalic kidneys for transplantation has been associated with a high incidence of primary nonfunction and few recipients with long-term functioning grafts. Harvesting of kidneys from anencephalic donors declared "brain-dead" at birth may reduce the incidence of primary nonfunction and increase the availability of anencephalic kidneys for transplantation. Reports of the use of pediatric cadaver kidneys for transplantation into pediatric and adult recipients yields discrepant results. Analysis of the data indicates that if pediatric cadaver kidneys from donors less than 6 years of age are used, the potential for decreased graft survival rates and an increased incidence of technical complications exists. However, the use of pediatric cadaver kidneys can provide adequate graft function in both pediatric and adult recipients and the use of such kidneys should increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation.