Bortezomib is the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, commonly used in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The mechanisms underlying acquired bortezomib resistance in MM are poorly understood. Several cell-free miRNAs have been found to be aberrantly regulated in MM patients. The aim of this pilot study was to identify a blood-based miRNA signature that predicts bortezomib-based therapy efficacy in MM patients. Thirty MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens were studied, including 19 with refractory disease and 11 who were bortezomib sensitive. Serum miRNA expression patterns were identified with miRCURY LNA miRNA miRNome PCR Panels I+II (Exiqon/Qiagen). Univariate analysis found a total of 21 miRNAs to be differentially expressed in patients with MM according to bortezomib sensitivity. Multivariate logistic regression was created and allowed us to discriminate refractory from sensitive patients with a very high AUC of 0.95 (95%CI: 0.84-1.00); sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were estimated as 0.95, 0.91, and 0.93. The model used expression of 3 miRNAs: miR-215-5p, miR-181a-5p and miR-376c-3p. This study is the first to demonstrate that serum expression of several miRNAs differs between patients who are bortezomib refractory and those who are sensitive which may prove useful in studies aimed at overcoming drug resistance in MM treatment.
Keywords: bortezomib; efficacy; miR-181a-5p; miR-215-5p; miR-376c-3p; microRNA; multiple myeloma; refractory; resistance; sensitivity.