Background: Freiberg's disease is an osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head bone. Numerous surgical interventions can be provided; however, the literature is limited in systematic reviews discussing the various options. The study aimed to systematically review the quantity and quality of literatures exploring the surgical interventions.
Methods: Fifty articles were found to be relevant for assessing the efficacy of common surgical interventions. The articles were assigned a level of evidence (I-V) to assess their quality. Next, the studies were reviewed to provide a grade of recommendation (A-C, I).
Results: Two studies were found at level III that explored osteotomy and autologous transplantation; the other studies were level IV-V. There is poor evidence (grade C) in supporting of joint sparing and joint sacrificing for Freiberg's disease.
Conclusion: Poor evidence exists to support the surgical interventions for Freiberg's disease, higher quality trials are needed to support the increasing application of these surgical techniques.
Level of evidence: Level IV, Systematic review.
Keywords: Freiberg disease; Hemiarthroplasty; Interposition arthroplasty; Metatarsal osteotomies; Microfracture; Open joint debridement; Perichondeal grafting; Resection arthroplasty.
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