Interleukin (IL)-35 belongs to the IL-12 cytokine family and is a heterodimer of the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) subunits. Functionally, IL-35 can promote the proliferation and activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppress the function of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and other inflammatory cells to inhibit immune responses. In recent years, an abnormal IL-35 expression causing a Th17/Treg imbalance has been associated with the development and progression of several connective tissue diseases (CTDs), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis (DM)/polymyositis (PM), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Here, we review the role of IL-35 in regulating the balance of Th17/Treg responses in different types of CTDs and provide new insights into the role of IL-35 in these diseases.
Keywords: dermatomyositis; interleukin-35; polymyositis; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; systemic sclerosis.
© 2020 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.