Objectives: Intake of dietary fatty acid may play a major role in the prevention and management of lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, the aim of this study was to find an association between ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio and T2DM.
Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin were measured using commercially available kits. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared using standard protocols. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activities were determined from product-to-precursor ratios of individual fatty acids in plasma. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.
Results: The ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 was higher in the group with diabetes (13:1) when compared with the group without diabetes (4:1) and was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Further association studies showed that univariate model with the ω-6 to ω-3 ratio and a multivariate model with D5D, D6D, and ω-6 to ω-3 ratio could serve as predictive polyunsaturated fatty acid pathway models for T2DM.
Conclusions: From the study results, it is evident that ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratios can serve as essential predictive biomarkers in the management of patients with T2DM. This would not only help in management but would also aid in prevention of increased T2DM incidence in India. These results potentiate the need to maintain an ideal balance of ω-6 to ω-3, as prevention is always better than cure.
Keywords: Fatty acids; desaturase; type 2 diabetes; ω-3; ω-6.
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