Estimators and tests in the analysis of multiple nonindependent 2 x 2 tables with partially missing observations

Biometrics. 1988 Jun;44(2):513-28.


We present methods for the analysis of a K-variate binary measure for two independent groups where some observations may be incomplete, as in the case of K repeated measures in a comparative trial. For the K 2 X 2 tables, let theta = (theta 1,..., theta K) be a vector of association parameters where theta k is a measure of association that is a continuous function of the probabilities pi ik in each group (i = 1, 2; k = 1,..., K), such as the log odds ratio or log relative risk. The asymptotic distribution of the estimates theta = (theta 1,..., theta K) is derived. Under the assumption that theta k = theta for all k, we describe the maximally efficient linear estimator theta of the common parameter theta. Tests of contrasts on the theta are presented which provide a test of homogeneity Ha: theta k = theta l for all k not equal to l. We then present maximally efficient tests of aggregate association Hb: theta = theta 0, where theta 0 is a given value. It is shown that the test of aggregate association Hb is asymptotically independent of the preliminary test of homogeneity Ha. These methods generalize the efficient estimators of Gart (1962, Biometrics 18, 601-610), and the Cochran (1954, Biometrics 10, 417-451), Mantel-Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748), and Radhakrishna (1965, Biometrics 21, 86-98) tests to nonindependent tables. The methods are illustrated with an analysis of repeated morphologic evaluations of liver biopsies obtained in the National Cooperative Gallstone Study.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Biometry / methods*
  • Biopsy
  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid / adverse effects
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / pathology


  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid