Background: The onset of menopause increases the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adiponectin is an adipokine associated with insulin sensitivity that is lower in people with MetS. Supplementing diets with linoleic acid (LA)-rich oil increased adiponectin concentrations and improved glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes. The effect of LA on adipokines, especially total and the bioactive form of adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, in women with MetS is unknown.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of supplementation of the diet with an oil rich in LA on adipokines in women with MetS. The effect of the LA-rich oil (LA-oil) on oxylipins, key metabolites that may influence inflammation and metabolism, was also explored.
Methods: In this open-label single-arm pilot study, 18 postmenopausal nondiabetic women with MetS enrolled in a 2-phase study were instructed to consume LA-rich vegetable oil (10 mL/d) as part of their habitual diets. Women consumed an oleic acid-rich oil (OA-oil) for 4 wk followed by an LA-oil for 16 wk. Fasting concentrations of adipokines, fatty acids, oxylipins, and markers of glycemia and inflammation were measured.
Results: After 4 wk of OA-oil consumption, fasting glucose and total adiponectin concentrations decreased whereas fasting C-reactive protein increased. After 16 wk of LA-oil supplementation total and HMW adiponectin and plasma oxylipins increased. Markers of inflammation and glycemia were unchanged after LA-oil consumption.
Conclusions: Supplementation with LA-oil increased total and HMW adiponectin concentrations and altered plasma oxylipin profiles. Larger studies are needed to elucidate the links between these changes and MetS.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02063165.
Keywords: adherence; adiponectin; fatty acid composition; linoleic acid; metabolic syndrome; oxylipin.
Copyright © The Author(s) on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition 2020.