Beta-aminoisobutyric acid is released by contracting human skeletal muscle and lowers insulin release from INS-1 832/3 cells by mediating mitochondrial energy metabolism

Metabol Open. 2020 Aug 22;7:100053. doi: 10.1016/j.metop.2020.100053. eCollection 2020 Sep.


Aims/hypothesis: This study aimed to examine if beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is (i) secreted by skeletal muscle in humans during exercise, (ii) associated with insulin secretory function in vivo, and (iii) directly linked with acute glucose-mediated insulin release by pancreatic beta cells in vitro.

Methods: Following 2-weeks of single-leg immobilization, plasma BAIBA concentrations were measured in the brachial artery and the femoral veins of each leg in healthy male subjects, at rest and during two-legged dynamic knee-extensor exercise. During a 2-h hyperglycamic clamp, insulin secretory function and levels of plasma BAIBA were assessed in non-diabetic individuals, non-diabetic individuals following 24-h hyperglycemia and patients with type 2 diabetes. Direct effects of BAIBA on acute glucose-mediated insulin release were probed in INS-1832/3 cells under normal and 'diabetes-like' conditions. Finally, the effect of BAIBA on mitochondrial function was assessed in INS-1832/3 cells using extracellular flux analysis.

Results: (i) BAIBA is released from skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise under healthy conditions but is suppressed during exercise following leg immobilization, (ii) plasma BAIBA concentrations inversely associate with insulin secretory function in humans, (iii) BAIBA lowers mitochondrial energy metabolism in INS-1 832/3 cells in parallel with decreased insulin secretionConclusion/interpretation: BAIBA is a myokine released by skeletal muscle during exercise and indepedantly alters the triggering pathway of insulin secretion in cultured INS-1832/3 cells.

Keywords: BAIBA; BAIBA, beta-aminoisobutyric acid; BSA, bovine serum albumin; DAPI, 4′,6-disamidino-2-phenylindole; Exercise; GSIS, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; Glucolipotoxicity; HEPES, (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid); Muscle contraction; Myokine; Pancreatic beta-cell; RPMI, Roswell Parks Memorial Institute; T2D, type 2 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; β-cell, pancreatic beta-cell.