B-Cell-Targeted 3DNA Nanotherapy Against Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis in a Preclinical Model

Clin Pathol. 2020 Aug 27;13:2632010X20951812. doi: 10.1177/2632010X20951812. eCollection 2020 Jan-Dec.

Abstract

The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) has been identified as an immunomodulatory agent promoting autoimmunity in preclinical models. As such, finding ways to target the expression of IDO2 in B cells promises a new avenue for therapy for debilitating autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. IDO2, like many drivers of disease, is an intracellular protein expressed in a range of cells, and thus therapeutic inhibition of IDO2 requires a mechanism for targeting this intracellular protein in specific cell types. DNA nanostructures are a promising novel way of delivering small molecule drugs, antibodies, or siRNAs to the cytoplasm of a cell. These soluble, branched structures can carry cell-specific targeting moieties along with their therapeutic deliverable. Here, we examined a 3DNA nanocarrier specifically targeted to B cells with an anti-CD19 antibody. We find that this 3DNA is successfully delivered to and internalized in B cells. To test whether these nanostructures can deliver an efficacious therapeutic dose to alter autoimmune responses, a modified anti-IDO2 siRNA was attached to B-cell-directed 3DNA nanocarriers and tested in an established preclinical model of autoimmune arthritis, KRN.g7. The anti-IDO2 3DNA formulation ameliorates arthritis in this system, delaying the onset of joint swelling and reducing total arthritis severity. As such, a 3DNA nanocarrier system shows promise for delivery of targeted, specific, low-dose therapy for autoimmune disease.

Keywords: 3DNA; IDO2; arthritis; autoimmunity; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2.