We aim to summarize the evidence focusing on the effects of various doses of human milk on the risk of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The eligible articles in the study were those investigating the association between human milk and NEC published before June 26, 2019, in the PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, VIP database, CNKI database, and Wangfang database. The included criteria were as follows: premature infants of <37 weeks; randomly controlled trials (RCTs); those fed by mother's own milk or donor human milk; studies focused on the comparison of human milk and formula milk, involving various breast milk doses; and NEC-related studies. Compared with the exclusive formula, the incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower. The incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower than that of partial human milk [risk ratio (RR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36-0.79, P < .05]. The incidence of NEC in the infants fed mainly by human milk was significantly lower than that of mainly fed by formula. Incidence of NEC in the infants fed by exclusive human milk was significantly lower than that of any formula (RR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P < .05). In summary, this meta-analysis was based on the RCTs involving the prevention of NEC using human milk. Exclusive human milk and partial human milk reduced the incidence of NEC in premature infants, especially in the those fed by high proportion of human milk. In addition, more RCTs are needed to further validate such conclusion.