Prevalence and incidence of pre-hypertension and hypertension (awareness/control) in Iran: findings from Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors study 2 (KERCADRS)

J Hum Hypertens. 2022 May;36(5):461-472. doi: 10.1038/s41371-020-00392-5. Epub 2020 Sep 14.


Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of pre-HTN, diagnosed and undiagnosed HTN, as well as its control and associated factors in adult population in southeast Iran. In a randomized household survey, 9987 participants aged 15-80 years were recruited into the study. HTN was confirmed through examination or using antihypertensive drug(s). Pre-HTN and HTN were defined as 120-139/80-89 and ≥140/90 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The prevalence of pre-HTN was 28.5%. The prevalence of HTN was 19.2% (13.9% diagnosed and 5.3% undiagnosed). HTN increased with age (from 4% in 15-24 to 67.8% in 75-80 years). Men had higher pre-HTN (35.6% vs. 23.4%) and undiagnosed HTN (7.5% vs. 3.8%) than women. Of those diagnosed, 46.5% had uncontrolled BP, in which, women had better conditions than men (45.6% vs. 47.4%). Obesity, positive family history of HTN, anxiety, and low physical activity were the most significant predictors of HTN. The prevalence of pre-HTN decreased but there was no change in the prevalence of HTN during the last 5 years. The 5-year incidence rate/100 person-years of pre-HTN and HTN was 6.6 and 3.7, respectively. Although there are some promising signs of reducing pre-HTN and slowing HTN rise, currently, almost one-fifth of the adult population suffers from HTN. Given the poor BP control in patients with diagnosed HTN, especially in men, alarms that more effective interventions and strategies are needed to reduce deleterious consequences of HTN.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Coronary Artery Disease*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prehypertension* / diagnosis
  • Prehypertension* / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors