Cervical cancer prevention in transgender men: a review

BJOG. 2021 Apr;128(5):822-826. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.16503. Epub 2020 Oct 2.


There is increased awareness of transgender physical and mental health widely and in academic research. A significant proportion of transgender men will retain their cervix with an increased risk of cervical cancer. In this review of cervical cancer screening among transgender men, we try to estimate how many transgender men still have a cervix, understand to identify challenges and barriers to cervical screening and propose possible solutions. Organised cervical screening programmes need to consider the needs of this population, in particular the provision of HPV self-sampling. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Transgender men need access to cervical screening.

Keywords: Cancer; cervix; screening; transgender; transmen.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Early Detection of Cancer*
  • Female
  • Health Services for Transgender Persons*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*