Background and purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of intraarterial versus intravenous tirofiban during endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke.
Methods: This study retrospectively examined 503 patients with acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion who received endovascular thrombectomy within 24 hours of stroke onset. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no tirofiban (n=354), intraarterial tirofiban (n=79), and intravenous tirofiban (n=70). The 3 groups were compared in terms of recanalization rate, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, in-hospital death rate, 3-month death, and 3-month outcomes measured by modified Rankin Scale score (good clinical outcome of 0-2, poor outcome of 5-6). The comparison was statistically assessed by propensity score matching, followed by Freidman rank-sum test and pairwise Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction.
Results: The propensity score matching resulted in 92 matched triplets. Compared with the no-tirofiban group, the intravenous tirofiban group showed significantly increased recanalization (96.7% versus 64.1%, P<0.001), an increased rate of 3-month good outcome (69.5% versus 51.2%, P=0.034), and a lower rate of 3-month poor outcome (12.2% versus 41.4%, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the tirofiban intravenous and no-tirofiban groups in terms of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (2.2% versus 0%, P=1.000). However, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly increased in the intraarterial-tirofiban group compared with the no-tirofiban group (19.1% versus 0%, P<0.001), with an increased rate of in-hospital death (23.6% versus 0% P<0.001), and increased rate of 3-month death (26.8% versus 11.1%, P=0.021). The intraarterial-tirofiban and no-tirofiban group showed no significant difference in recanalization rate (66.3% versus 64.1%, P=1.000).
Conclusions: As an adjunct to endovascular thrombectomy, intravenous tirofiban is associated with high recanalization rate and good outcome, whereas intraarterial tirofiban is associated with high hemorrhagic rate and death rate.
Keywords: atherosclerosis; death; hemorrhage; stroke; thrombectomy; tirofiban.