Astaxanthin prevents lung injury due to hyperoxia and inflammation

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2020 Sep 14. doi: 10.2174/1386207323666200915092012. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background/aim: We aimed to ascertain the effects of astaxanthin on the lungs of rat pups with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by hyperoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Materials and methods: Forty-two newborn Wistar rats born to spontaneous pregnant rats were divided into three groups: Hyperoxia (95% O2) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, hyperoxia + LPS + astaxhantin group and control: no treatment group (21% O2). Pups in the hyperoxia + LPS + astaxanthin group were given 100 mg/kg/day oral astaxanthin from the first day to the fifth day. Histopathologic and biochemical evaluations including glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total thiol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) and caspase-3 activities were performed.

Results: A better survival rates and weight gain were demonstrated in the hyperoxia + LPS + astaxanthin group (p <0.001). In the histopathologic evaluation, the severity of lung damage was significantly reduced in the hyperoxia+LPS+astaxanthin group, as well as decreased apoptosis (ELİSA for caspase-3) (p <0.001). The biochemical analyses of lung tissues TAS, GSH, Total thiol levels were significantly higher in the astaxanthin treated group compared to hyperoxia + LPS group (p <0.05) while TOS, AOPP, LPO, 8-OHdG, MPO levels were significantly lower (p <0.001). In addition, unlike the hyperoxia + LPS group, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in lung tissue were significantly lower in the astaxanthin-treated group (p <0.001).

Conclusion: Astaxanthin was shown to reduce lung damage caused by inflammation and hyperoxia with its antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic properties and to protect the lung from severe destruction.

Keywords: Astaxanthin; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; rat.