Near-Peer Learning During the Surgical Clerkship: A Way to Facilitate Learning After a 15-Month Preclinical Curriculum

J Surg Educ. 2020 Sep 12;S1931-7204(20)30342-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.08.042. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the performance and perspectives of third-year medical students (MS3s) participating in near-peer learning (NPL) sessions during their core surgical clerkship following a 15-month preclerkship curriculum.

Design: An evaluation study of 7 NPL sessions developed and implemented by fourth-year medical students (MS4s) held from March 2019 to February 2020. MS4s taught 1-2 sessions per rotation that included test taking strategies, illness script development, radiology review, case-based multiple-choice questions, and rapid review. Participants completed a questionnaire with 11 seven-point Likert and open-ended questions after each session. Analyses included quantitative comparison of shelf score averages between NPL participants and nonparticipants and qualitative content analysis for open-ended questions.

Setting: Surgical clerkship at the University of California, San Francisco.

Participants: Forty-eight (32%) MS3s participated, with an average attendance of 10 students per rotation. Thirty-three (69%) participants completed the questionnaire.

Results: MS3s enjoyed the session (6.9 ± 0.4), improved their knowledge (6.8 ± 0.5), and felt more prepared for the surgery shelf examination (6.5 ± 0.6). MS4 leaders found that MS3s always wanted radiology review, and their interest in test taking strategies and illness script development declined across the clerkship year. Participants had lower shelf exam scores compared to nonparticipants (68.1 vs 71.4, respectively; p = 0.04, ES = 0.03). Shelf exam scores increased over time in both cohorts. Each group had 2 shelf exam failures. Qualitative analysis suggests that MS3s appreciated the NPL's tailored approach and exam demystification, with a desire for increased NPL integration into the clerkship.

Conclusion: Students participating in NPL were satisfied with the sessions. Participants may have been students who struggled as indicated by shelf exam scores and appreciated the support. The shift in preferred topics across the blocks reflects the students' development during clerkships. Near-peer teachers should adjust sessions over time to fit students' evolving needs.

Keywords: Competencies: Medical knowledge; Near-peer learning; curriculum design; medical education; medical student education; surgery clerkship.