Monitoring of heat-induced carcinogenic compounds (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters and glycidyl esters) in fries

Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 15;10(1):15110. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-72118-z.


3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GE) are heat-induced contaminants which form during oil refining process, particularly at the high temperature deodorization stage. It is worth to investigate the content of 3-MCPD and GE in fries which also involved high temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters and GE were monitored in fries. The factors that been chosen were temperature and duration of frying, and different concentration of salt (NaCl). The results in our study showed that the effect was in the order of concentration of sodium chloride < frying duration < frying temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters was significantly increased whereas GE was significantly decreased, when prolong the frying duration. A high temperature results in a high 3-MCPD ester level but a low GE level in fries. The present of salt had contributed significant influence to the generation of 3-MCPD. The soaking of potato chips in salt showed no significant effect on the level of GE during the frying. The oil oxidation tests showed that all the fries were below the safety limit. Hence, the frying cycle, temperature and the added salt to carbohydrate-based food during frying should be monitored.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carcinogens / analysis*
  • Carcinogens / chemistry
  • Cooking / methods*
  • Esters / analysis*
  • Esters / chemistry
  • Food Analysis
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Food Handling
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Humans
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin / analysis*
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin / chemistry


  • Carcinogens
  • Esters
  • Plant Oils
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin