People with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the interaction between COVID-19 and CVD is unclear. In this systematic review, the available evidence for the crosstalk between COVID-19 and CVD and its treatment was analysed. A search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects human cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. SARS-CoV-2 can cause CVD by inducing cytokine storms, creating an imbalance in the oxygen supply and demand and disrupting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS-CoV-2 infection can also lead to the development of CVD through the side effects of therapeutic drugs, psychological factors, and aggravation of underlying CVD. The most common CVDs caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Studies have found that there is an interaction between COVID-19 and CVD. Underlying CVD is associated with a high risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection can also cause new-onset CVD. Clinicians need to pay close attention to cardiovascular complications during the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 to reduce patient mortality.
Keywords: COVID-19; Cardiovascular disease; Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SARS-CoV-2.
© 2020 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.